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Saturday, November 13, 2010

pharmacology pneumonic

Hepatomegaly: 3 common causes, 3 rarer causes

Common are 3 C's:
Cirrhosis
Carcinoma
Cardiac failure
Rarer are 3 C's:
Cholestasis
Cysts
Cellular infiltration
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---Anonymous Contributor and Jamal Khan Not Specified and Birmingham University Medical Student

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: which has cobblestones

Crohn's has Cobblestones on endoscopy.
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---Anonymous Contributor

PKU findings

PKU:
Pale hair, skin
Krazy (neurological abnormalities)
Unpleasant smell
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---Robert O'Connor and Lior Greenberg

Haemochromatosis definition, classic triad

"Iron man triathalon":
Iron man: deposition of iron in many body tissues.
· Triathalon has 3 components, which match triad:
Swimming: Skin pigmentation
Biking: Bronze diabetes
Marathon: Micronodular pigment cirrhosis
· See diagram for visual equivalent.
Show Picture
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Ulcerative colitis: features

ULCERATIONS:
Ulcers
Large intestine
Carcinoma [risk]
Extraintestinal manifestations
Remnants of old ulcers [pseudopolyps]
Abscesses in crypts
Toxic megacolon [risk]
Inflamed, red, granular mucosa
Originates at rectum
Neutrophil invasion
Stools bloody
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---Samuel Atom Baek-Kim

Peptic ulcer: associated causative factors

SHAZAM:
Smoking
Hypercalcemia
Aspirin
Zollinger-Ellison
Acidity
MEN type I
· These may work with H. pylori to promote ulceration, or may act alone.
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Carcinoid syndrome: components

CARCinoid:
Cutaneous flushing
Asthmatic wheezing
Right sided valvular heart lesions
Cramping and diarrhea
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Gallstones/cholecystitis: risk factors

5 F's:
Fat
Female
Family history
Fertile
Forty
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---Saif Nasafi

Kwashiorkor: distinguishing from Marasmus

FLAME:
Fatty Liver
Anemia
Malabsorption
Edema
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---Chris UMF Bucharest

Oral cancer risks

PATH LAB:
Plummer-vinson syndrome
Alcohol
Tobacco
Human papilloma virus
Leukoplakia
Asbestos
Bad oral hygiene

Pancreatitis: causes

PANCREATITIS:
Posterior
Alcohol
Neoplasm
Cholelithiasis
Rx (lasix, AZT)
ERCP
Abdominal surgery
Trauma
Infection (mumps)
Triglycerides elevated
Idiopathic
Scorpion bite
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---Anonymous Contributor

Hepatocellular carcinoma: aetiology, features

ABC:
Aetiology:
Aflatoxins
Hep B
Cirrhosis
· Features:
AFP increased (classic marker)
Bile-producing (DDx from cholangiocarcinoma)
Commonest primary liver tumor
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Pancreatitis: causes

BAD S#!T:
Biliary: gallstones, 1% of ERCP patients
Alcoholism/ Azotemia
Drugs
Scorpion bite/ Sea anenome/ SLE
Hyperlipidemia/ Hypercalcemia
Idiopathic/ Infectious (mumps, coxsackie, salmonella, ascariasis)
Tumor/ Trauma
· The drugs are: penacillamine, furosemide, thiazides, ethacrynic acid, steroids, sulfas, ace inhibitors, N-SAIDs, erythromycin, estrogen.
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---Anonymous Contributor

IBD: extraintestinal manifestations

"Left intestine to sail the SEAS of the rest of the body":
Skin manifestations: erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum
Eye inflammation: iritis, episcleritis
Arthritis
Sclerosing cholangitis
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---Anonymous Contributor

Achalasia: 1 possible cause, 1 treatment

aCHAlasia:
1 possible cause: CHAgas' disease
1 treatment: Ca++ CHAnnel blockers
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---Anonymous Contributor

Colon cancer: risk factors

HULA:
Heridity/ Heriditary diseases
Ulcerative colitis
Low fibre, high fat diet
Adenomatous polyps
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---Anonymous Contributor

Colon carcinoma: aeitiology

CRAPS:
Chronic ulcerative colitis
Ratio of animal fat:fibre diet
Adenomatous polyps
Familial Polyposis
Strong family history of colon cancer.
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Takayasu's disease is Pulseless disease

"Can't Tak'a ya pulse" (Can't take your pulse):
Takayasu's disease known as Pulseless disease, since pulse is weakened in the upper extremities.
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---Anonymous Contributor

Acute ischemia: signs [especially limbs]

6 P's:
Pain
Pallor
Pulselessness
Paralysis
Paraesthesia
Perishingly cold
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---Shebrain Cairo University

Hypertension: secondary hypertension causes

CHAPS:
Cushing's syndrome
Hyperaldosteronism [aka Conn's syndrome]
Aorta coarctation
Phaeochromocytoma
Stenosis of renal arteries
· Note: only 5% of hypertension cases are secondary, rest are primary.
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---Anonymous Contributor

MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI

"C-AST-Le" (castle):
CK-MB first
AST second
LDH third
· Also: can use the last 'E' for ESR.
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---Anonymous Contributor

Atherosclerosis risk factors

"You're a SAD BET with these risk factors":
Sex: male
Age: middle-aged, elderly
Diabetes mellitus
BP high: hypertension
Elevated cholesterol
Tobacco
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---HBV Morehouse School of Medicine

Atherosclerosis risk factors

SHIFT MAID:
Smoking
Hypertension
(N)IDDM
Family history
Triglycerdides & fats
Male
Age
Inactivity
Diet / Drink
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---Marcus McMillan Glasgow University

Thrombus: possible fates

DOPE:
Dissolution
Organization & repair
Propagation
Embolization
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI

"Time to CALL 911":
· From first to appear to last:
Troponin
CK-MB
AST
LDH1
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---Marco Foramiglio Centro de Ciências Médicas e Biológicas - PUC/SP- Sorocaba/SP - Brazil

Blood disorders: commoner sex

HE (male) gets:
HEmophilia (X-linked)
HEinz bodies (G6PD deficiency, causing HEmolytic anemia: X-linked)
HEmochromatosis (male predominance)
HEart attacks (male predominance)
HEnoch-Schonlein purpura (male predominance)
SHE (female) gets:
SHEehan's syndrome
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---Anonymous Contributor

Deep venous thrombosis: genetic causes

ALASCA:
Antithrombin III
Leiden (Factor V)
APC (Activated Protein C)
S-protein deficiency
C-protein deficiency
Antiphospholipid antibody

Buerger's disease features

"burger SCRAPS":
Segmenting thrombosing vasculitis
Claudication (intermittent)
Raynaud's phenomenon
Associated with smoking
Pain, even at rest
Superficial nodular phlebitis
· Alternatively, if hungry for more detail [sic], "CRISP PIG burgers":
Chronic ulceration
Raynaud's phenomenon
Intermittent claudication
Segmenting, thrombosing vasculitis
Pain, even at rest
Phlebitis (superficial nodular)
Idiopathic
Gangrene
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Deep venous thrombosis: diagnosis

DVT:
Dilated superficial veins/ Discoloration/ Doppler ultrasound
Venography is gold standard
Tenderness of Thigh and calf
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---Rinku Uberoi UNIBE

Virchow's triad (venous thrombosis)

"VIRchow":
Vascular trauma
Increased coagulability
Reduced blood flow (stasis)
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---Rinku Uberoi UNIBE

Kawasaki disease: features

Disease name: a Kawasaki motorcycle.
Usually young children, epidemic in Japan: Japanese child rides the motorcycle.
Conjunctival, oral erythema: red eyes, mouth.
Fever: thermometer.
Erythema of palms, soles: red palms, soles.
Generalized rash: rash dots.
Cervical lymphadenitis: enlarged cervical nodes with inflammation arrows.
Vasculitis of arteries: inflammation arrows on arteries.
Cardiovascular sequelae [20%]: inflammation arrows on cardiac arteries.
Treat with aspirin: aspirin headlight.
· See diagram.
Show Picture
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Von Hippel-Lindau: signs and symptoms

HIPPEL:
Hemanigoblastomas
Increased renal cancer
Pheochromocytoma
Port-wine stains
Eye dysfunction
Liver, pancreas, kidney cysts
· Bare bones version: Hippel-Lindau, with H and L as above.
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Heart failure causes

"HEART MAy DIE":
Hypertension
Embolism
Anemia
Rheumatic heart disease
Thyrotoxicosis (incl. pregnancy)
Myocardial infarct
Arrythmia
Y
Diet & lifestyle
Infection
Endocarditis
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---The Cashman University of Queensland, Australia

Anemia causes (simplified)

ANEMIA:
Anemia of chronic disease
No folate or B12
Ethanol
Marrow failure & hemaglobinopathies
Iron deficient
Acute & chronic blood loss
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---The Cashman University of Queensland, Australia

Pick's disease: location, action, epidemiology

· See figure.
Pick axes are Picking away at the old woman's cerebral cortex, causing cortical atrophy.
2 pick axes on her brain: frontal lobe and anterior 1/3 of temporal.
An old woman, since epidemiology is elderly & more common in women.
Show Picture
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Pericarditis: findings

PERICarditis:
Pulsus paradoxus
ECG changes
Rub
Increased JVP
Chest pain [worse on inspiration, better when lean forward]
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Fat embolism: findings

"Fat, Bat, Fract":
Fat in urine, sputum
Bat-wing lung x-ray
Fracture history
· Also, fracture of FEMur causes Fat EMboli.
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Hemolytic anemia types

SHEEP T!T:
Sickle cell
Heriditary splenocytosis
Enzyme deficiencies: [G6P, pyruvate kinase]
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Trauma to RBCs
Immunohemolytics: [warm Ab, cold Ag]
Thalassemias: [alpha, beta]
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Disseminated Intravascular Cogulation: causes

DIC:
Delivery TEAR (obstetric complications)
Infections (gram negative)/ Immunological
Cancer (prostate, pancreas, lung, stomach)
· Obstretrical complications are TEAR:
Toxemia of pregnancy
Emboli (amniotic)
Abrutio placentae
Retain fetus products
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---Khawaja Atif Farooq Rawalpindi Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan (Gujranwala)

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: signs

FAT RN:
Fever
Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Renal problems
Neurologic dysfunction
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---Anonymous Contributor

Kawasaki disease: diagnostic criteria

CHILD:
5 letters=5 days, >5 years old, 5 out 6 criteria for diagnosis:
Conjuctivitis (bilateral)
Hyperthermia (fever) >5 days
Idiopathic polymorphic rash
Lymphoadenopathy (cervical)
Dryness & redness of (i)lips & month (ii)palms & soles [2 separate criteria]
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---Wen Sun Lum University of Calgary, Canada

Protein C, Protein S: function

C and S are:
Clot
Stoppers
· These proteins inhibit coagulation.
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---Rinku Uberoi New York Hospital

Aneurysm types

MAD SCAB:
Mycotic
Atherosclerotic
Dissecting
Syphilitic
Capillary microaneurysm
Arteriovenous fistula
Berry
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---Sushant Varma Medical student, University of Sheffield, UK

Kawasaki's disease: features

FEAR ME:
Fever
Eye: perilimbic sparing conjunctival injection
Adenopathy: usually cervical
Rash
Mouth: red lips
Extremities: red hands and feet
· Disease to be feared because of risk of coronary aneurysms.
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---Vince Yamashiroya

MI: complications

"LEAP on the MAP":
LVF
Embolism (systemic)
Aneurysm (ventricular)
Progressive infarction
Myocardial rupture
Arrhythmia
Pericarditis
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---Kevin Lau University of Hong Kong

Portal hypertension: features

ABCDE:
Ascites
Bleeding (haematemesis, piles)
Caput medusae
Diminished liver
Enlarged spleen
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---Dr. Harsh Sharma

Anemia (normocytic): causes

ABCD:
Acute blood loss
Bone marrow failure
Chronic disease
Destruction (hemolysis)
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---Anthony Chan

TTP: clinical features

Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia PARTNER together:
Platelet count low
Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic)
Renal failure
Temperature rise
Neurological deficits
ER admission (as it is an emergency)
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---Anthony Chan

Macrocytic anaemia: differential

FAT RBC:
Fetus (pregnancy)
Alcohol
Thyroid disease(ie hypothyroidism)
Reticulocytosis
B12 and folate deficiency
Cirrhosis and chronic liver disease
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---Anonymous Contributor

MI: post-MI complications

ACT RAPID:
Arrhythmias (SVT, VT, VF)
Congestive cardiac failure
Tamponade/ Thromboembolic disorders
Rupture (ventricle, septum, papillary muscle)
Aneurysm (ventricle)
Pericarditis
Infaction (a second one)
Death/ Dressler's syndrome
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---Dr. Huw Davies

Cardiovascular risk factors

FLASH BODIES:
Family history
Lipids
Age
Sex
Homocystinaemia
Blood pressure
Obesity
Diabetes mellitus
Inflammation (raised CRP)/ Increased thrombosis
Exercise
Smoking
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---Hamish Mace Dunedin School of Medicine, New Zealand

Cardiovascular risk factors (Framingham)

FRAMINGHAM:
Family history
Running (exercise)
Adiposity (obesity)
Marlboros (tobacco)
Insulin resistance (diabetes)
Non-regulated lipids (dyslipidaemia)
Georgie Pie (high fat diet)
Hypertension
Age
Male

endocrine

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) subtype classification

Each subtype has 2 or 3 causes, plus something 1 or 2 more items.
MEN I is disease of 3 P's: [Pituitary, Parathyroid, Pancreas] plus one more: adrenal cortex.
MEN II is disease of 2 C's: [Carcinoma of thyroid, Catacholamines (pheochromocytoma)] plus two more: parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIB (also called MEN III).
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---Anonymous Contributor

Hypercalcemia: symptoms of elevated serum levels

"Bones, Stones, Groans, Moans":
Bones: pain in bones
Stones: renal
Groans: pain
Psychic moans/ Psychological overtones: confused state
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---Anonymous Contributor

Pheochromocytoma: 3 most common symptoms

"PHEochromocytoma":
Palpitations
Headache
Edisodic sweating (diaphoresis)
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Thyroid carcinoma: features, prognosis of most popular

Most Popular is Papillary.
· Clinical features:
Papillae (branching)
Palpable lymph nodes
"Pupil" nuclei (Orphan Annie)
Psammoma bodies within lesion (often)
· Also, has a Positive Prognosis (10 year survival rate: 98%).
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Thyroid storm characteristics

"Storm HITS girls cAMP":
Thyroid storm due to:
Hyperthyroidism
Infection or Illness at childbirth
Trauma
Surgery
· girls: Thyroid storm more common in females.
· cAMP: Tx involves high dose of beta blockers (beta receptors work via cAMP)
· Alternatively: "S#IT storm": Surgery, Hyperthyroidism, Infection/ Illness, Trauma.
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---Sung H. Kim & Lior Greenberg

Hypothyroidism/thyroiditis: maifestations and morphology

"A SCHISM among the Axis during WWII":
Addison disease
Subacute thyroiditis
Cretinism/ Cold intolerance/ Constipation
Hashimoto's disease
Infectious-subacute thyroiditis
Silent thyroiditis
Myxedema coma
· The Axis: Schimidt syndrome (when other endocrinology disorders accompany Hashimoto's disease) and "Hitler cells" (Hurthle cells, which are follicular epithelial cells with basophilic inculsions)
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---Sung H. Kim

Cushing syndrome

CUSHING:
Central obesity/ Cervical fat pads/ Collagen fiber weakness/ Comedones (acne)
Urinary free corisol and glucose increase
Striae/ Suppressed immunity
Hypercortisolism/ Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia/ Hirsutism
Iatrogenic (Increased administration of corticosteroids)
Noniatrogenic (Neoplasms)
Glucose intolerance/ Growth retardation
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---Rinku Uberoi

Calcification: metastatic vs. dystrophic

Metastatic: Metabolism imbalance.
Dystrophic: Damaged tissue.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

MEN I (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia) syndrome: components

"Please Please Pay Attention To peptic ulceration, you worms":
· Adenomas of:
Pituatary
Pancreatic islets
Parathyroid
Adrenal cortex
Thyroid, associated with peptic ulceration
· Syndrome is called "Wermer's syndrome".
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Addison's disease: features

ADDISON:
Autoimmune
DIC (meningcoccus)
Destruction by cancer, infection, vascular insufficiency
Iatrogenic
Sarcoidosis, granulomatous such as TB histiomycosis
hypOtension/ hypOnatermia
Nelson's syndrome [post adrelectomy, increased ACTH]

Multiple endocrine neoplasia III: components

MEN III is a disease of 3 M's:
Medullary thyroid carcinoma
Medulla of adrenal (pheochromocytoma)
Mucosal neuroma
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Thyrotoxicosis syndrome: signs and symptoms

"A Penny For Every Symptom That Hyperthyroidism Will Make Grossly Evident":
Anxiety
Palpitations/ Pulse rapid
Fatigability
Emotional lability
Sweating
Tremor
Heat intolerance
Weight loss with good appetite
Muscular weakness/ Menstrual changes
Goitre
Eye changes
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---Daniel Clarke University of Queensland

Goitre: differential

GOITRE:
Goitrogens
Onset of puberty
Iodine deficiency
Thyrotoxicosis/ Tumor/ Thyroiditis [Hashimoto's]
Reproduction [pregnancy]
Enzyme deficiencies
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---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Adrenal disorders: Cushing's vs Addison's

Cushing: is Gushing cortisol.
In Addison's: patient's cortisol doesn't Add up.
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---Anonymous Contributor

Pheochromocytoma: common symptoms

5 P's:
Paroxysmal rise in BP
Palpitations
Perspiration
Pain in abdomen
PMV in urine
Show Details / Rate It
---Malik Tariq Rahim King Edward Medical College, Pakistan

Phaeochromocytoma: diagnositc rule

· Rule of 10's:
10% ectopic
10% multiple
10% malignant
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---Anonymous Contributor University of Sydney, Australia

Hirsutism vs. virilism

Hirsutism: Hair on body like a male.
Virilism: Voice and rest of secondary sexual characteristics like a male.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Thyroid carcinoma: frequency

"Please Feel My A$$":
In order of most frequent to least frequent, and in order from least aggressive to most aggressive:
Papillary carcinoma
Follicular carcinoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma
Anaplastic carcinoma
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---Medicine 2004 student University of Western Ontario

Diabetes: short list of complications

SHAKE:
Stroke
Heart attack
Amputations
Kidney disease
Eyes (vision loss)

Lichen planus characteristics

Planus has 4 P's:
Peripheral
Polygonal
Pruritus
Purple
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---Anonymous Contributor

Diabetic ketoacidosis: I vs. II

ketONE bodies are seen in type ONE diabetes.
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---Anonymous Contributor

Baldness risk factors

"Daddy Doesn't Deny Getting Hair Implants":
Diet
Disease
Drugs
Genes
Hormones
Injury to the scalp
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---Anonymous Contributor

Melanoma vs. basal cell, squamous cell carcinoma: metastatic ability

MElanoma is more likely to
MEtastasize.
· Basal and squamous hardly ever metastasize.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Gout: factors that can precipitate an attack of acute gouty arthritis

DARK:
Diuretics
Alcohol
Renal disease
Kicked (trauma)
· And, the attack occurs most often at night [thus "dark"].
Show Details / Rate It
---Marc Miller Sackler School of Medicine

Renal failure: causes

AVID GUT:
Acute tubular necrosis
Vascular obstruction
Infection
Diffuse intravascular coagulation
Glomerular disease
Urinary obstruction
Tubulointerstitial nephritis
Show Details / Rate It
---Daniel Clarke University of Queensland

Calculi: types

CAlCUli:
Calcium
Ammonium magnesium phosphate
Cystine
Uric acid
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Gout vs. pseudogout: crystal lab findings

Pseduogout crystals are:
Positive birefringent
Polygon shaped
· Gout therefore is the negative needle shaped crystals.
· Also, gout classically strikes great Toe, and its hallmark is Tophi.
Show Picture
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

APKD: signs, complications, accelerators

11 B's:
· Signs:
Bloody urine
Bilateral pain [vs. stones, which are usually unilateral pain]
Blood pressure up
Bigger kidneys
Bumps palpable
· Complications:
Berry aneurysm
Biliary cysts
Bicuspid valve [prolapse and other problems]
· Accelerators:
Boys
Blacks
Blood pressure high
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Barter's syndrome: pathogenesis, major sign

Barter: "In exchange for giving away Na+,K+,Cl-, you can drop the blood pressure".
Show Details / Rate It
---Samuel Atom Baek-Kim Tuckahoe, New York

Renal failure (chronic): consequences

ABCDEFG:
Anemia
-due to less EPO
Bone alterations
-osteomalacia
-osteoporosis
-von Recklinghausen
Cardiopulmonary
-atherosclerosis
-CHF
-hypertension
-pericarditis
D vitamin loss
Electrolyte imbalance
-sodium loss/gain
-metabolic acidosis
-hyperkalemia
Feverous infections
-due to leukocyte abnormalities and dialysis hazards
GI disturbances
-haemorrhagic gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease
-intractable hiccups
Show Details / Rate It
---Plussind Siriraj Medical University, Thailand

Nephrotic syndrome: hallmark findings

"Protein LEAC":
Proteinuria
Lipid up
Edema
Albumin down
Cholesterol up
· In nephrotic, the proteins leak out.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Gout: major features

GOUT:
Great toe
One joint (75% monoarticular)
Uric acid increased (hence urolithiasis)
Tophi
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Harsh Sharma BJ Medical College

Hematuria: urethral causes

NUTS:
Neoplasm
Urethritis
Tumour
Stone
Show Details / Rate It
---Sushant Varma University of Sheffield, UK

Gout: factors that can precipitate an attack of acute gouty arthritis

DARK:
Diuretics
Alcohol
Renal disease
Kicked (trauma)
· And, the attack occurs most often at night [thus "dark"].
Show Details / Rate It
---Marc Miller Sackler School of Medicine

Renal failure: causes

AVID GUT:
Acute tubular necrosis
Vascular obstruction
Infection
Diffuse intravascular coagulation
Glomerular disease
Urinary obstruction
Tubulointerstitial nephritis
Show Details / Rate It
---Daniel Clarke University of Queensland

Calculi: types

CAlCUli:
Calcium
Ammonium magnesium phosphate
Cystine
Uric acid
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Gout vs. pseudogout: crystal lab findings

Pseduogout crystals are:
Positive birefringent
Polygon shaped
· Gout therefore is the negative needle shaped crystals.
· Also, gout classically strikes great Toe, and its hallmark is Tophi.
Show Picture
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

APKD: signs, complications, accelerators

11 B's:
· Signs:
Bloody urine
Bilateral pain [vs. stones, which are usually unilateral pain]
Blood pressure up
Bigger kidneys
Bumps palpable
· Complications:
Berry aneurysm
Biliary cysts
Bicuspid valve [prolapse and other problems]
· Accelerators:
Boys
Blacks
Blood pressure high
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Barter's syndrome: pathogenesis, major sign

Barter: "In exchange for giving away Na+,K+,Cl-, you can drop the blood pressure".
Show Details / Rate It
---Samuel Atom Baek-Kim Tuckahoe, New York

Renal failure (chronic): consequences

ABCDEFG:
Anemia
-due to less EPO
Bone alterations
-osteomalacia
-osteoporosis
-von Recklinghausen
Cardiopulmonary
-atherosclerosis
-CHF
-hypertension
-pericarditis
D vitamin loss
Electrolyte imbalance
-sodium loss/gain
-metabolic acidosis
-hyperkalemia
Feverous infections
-due to leukocyte abnormalities and dialysis hazards
GI disturbances
-haemorrhagic gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease
-intractable hiccups
Show Details / Rate It
---Plussind Siriraj Medical University, Thailand

Nephrotic syndrome: hallmark findings

"Protein LEAC":
Proteinuria
Lipid up
Edema
Albumin down
Cholesterol up
· In nephrotic, the proteins leak out.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Gout: major features

GOUT:
Great toe
One joint (75% monoarticular)
Uric acid increased (hence urolithiasis)
Tophi
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Harsh Sharma BJ Medical College

Hematuria: urethral causes

NUTS:
Neoplasm
Urethritis
Tumour
Stone
Show Details / Rate It
---Sushant Varma University of Sheffield, UK

Hodgkin's lymphoma classification

A: Asymptomatic
B: Bad
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad

"PET WASP":
Pyrogenic infections
Eczema
Thrombocytopenia
· WASP is the name of the causitive agent: Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein.
· Alternatively: Wiskott=Hot, Aldrich=Itch, Syndrom=Throm.
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Sarcoidosis summarized

SARCOIDOISIS:
Schaumann calcifications
Asteroid bodies/ [ACE] increase/ Anergy
Respiratory complications/ Renal calculi/ Restrictive lung disease/ Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Calcium increase in serum and urine/ CD4 helper cells
Ocular lesions
Immune mediated noncaseating granulomas/ [Ig] increase
Diabetes insipidus/ [D vit.] increase/ Dyspnea
Osteopathy
Skin (Subcutaneous nodules, erythema nodosum)
Interstitial lung fibrosis/ IL-1
Seventh CN palsy
Show Details / Rate It
---Rinku Uberoi UNIBE

Apoptosis vs. necrosis

"LIFELESS" (since cells are dead):
· Differences are in:
Leaky membranes
Inflammatory response
Fate
Extent
Laddering
Energy dependent
Swell or shrink
Stimulus
· See attached table for apoptosis and necrosis properties for each of the above.
Show Picture
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Leukemias: acute vs. chronic rules of thumb

ABCDE:
Acute is:
Blasts predominate
Children
Drastic course
Elderly
Few WBC's (so Fevers)
· Chronic is all the opposites:
Mature cells predominate
Middle aged
Less debilitating course
Elevated WBC's, so not a history of fevers and infections
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Hypersplenism: criteria

"Hyper Splenism Ravages Cells":
Hypercellular or normal marrow
Splenomegaly
Response to splenectomy
Cytopenias
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Harsh Sharma BJMC, Pune, India

Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs. chronic disease

TIBC levels at the:
Top=Iron deficiency.
Bottom=Chronic disease.
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Microcytic anemia: causes

"Find Those Small Cells":
Fe deficiency
Thalassemia
Sideroblastic
Chronic disease
Show Details / Rate It
---K. Dang University of Toronto

Megaloblastic anemia: vitamin B12 deficiency vs. folate deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency also affects Brain (optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, paresthesia).
· Folate deficiency is not associated with neurological symptoms.
Show Details / Rate It
---Glen Davis Cornell University Medical College

Symptoms of TTP/HUS

"Nasty Fever Ruined My Tubes":
Neurological symptoms
Fever
Renal failure
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
Thrombocytopenia

Hemophilia: type A factor

Hemophilia A: problems with VIII factor (number V as an inverted A).
Show Details / Rate It
---Julio M. De Peña, M.D. UNIBE Med School

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad

WASTER:
Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome is:
Thrombocytopenia
Eczema
Recurrent staphlococcal infections
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Macrocytosis: Non-B12/folate causes

ALPHA NERD:
Alcohol
Liver disease
Pregnancy
Hemaolysis (especially chronic)
Agglutination
Neoplasia (including myelodysplasia)
Endocrine (hypothyroidism)
Reticulocytes
Drugs (especially myelosuppressives like chemotherapy, anti-HIV meds)
Show Details / Rate It
---Steve

Duchenne vs. Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) : Doesn't Make Dystrophin.
Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD): Badly Made Dystrophin (a truncated protein).
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

McArdle's syndrome

MCARDLES:
Myoglobinuria
Cramping after exercise
Accumulated glycogen
Recessive inheritance
Deficiency of muscle phosphorylase
Lactate levels fail to rise
Elevated creatine kinase
Skeletal muscle only

Nervous system

Wernicke-Korsakoff triad

Syndrome in alchoholics, who love to "drink CANs of beer":
Confusion
Ataxia
Nystagmus
Show Details / Rate It
---Victor R. Carrion Zamoira Ponce School of Medicine

Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis: findings

COAT RACK:
· Wernicke's encephalopathy (acute phase):
Confusion
Ophthalmoplegia
Ataxia
Thiamine tx.
· Korsakoff's psychosis (chronic phase):
Retrograde amnesia
Anterograde amnesia
Confabulation
Korsakoff's psychosis
Show Details / Rate It
---HBV Morehouse School of Medicine

Parkinsonism: essential features

TRAPS:
Tremor (resting tremor)
Rigidity
Akinesia
Postural changes (stooped)
Stare (serpentine stare)
· To remember what kind of tremor and postural change, can look at letter that follows in TRAPS: Tremor is Resting, Posture is Stooped.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Tabes Dorsalis morphology

DORSALIS:
Dorsal column degeneration
Orthopedic pain (Charcot joints)
Reflexes decreased (deep tendon)
Shooting pain
Argyll-Robertson pupils
Locomotor ataxia
Impaired proprioception
Syphilis
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Pyrogenic meningitis: likeliest bug in age group

"Explaining Hot Neck Stiffness":
· In order from birth to death:
E. coli [infants]
Haemophilus influenzae [older infants, kids]
Neisseria meningitis [young adults]
Streptococcus pneumoniae [old folks]
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Parkinson's disease: symptoms

PQRST:
Paucity of expression
parQinson
Rigidity (cogwheel)
Stooped posture
Tremor at rest
· If can't remember that Parkinson's tremor is the one that is "resting tremor", look at the last 3 letters: RST.
Show Details / Rate It
---Mitul SUNY, Stony Brook

Neuroblastoma: features

N-MYC:
Nuclei have "double minutes"
Malignant
Young
Catecholamine secreting
· And hallmark is n-myc amplification.
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Lou Gehrig's is both upper and lower motor neuron signs

LoU = Lower & Upper.
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Dandy-Walker syndrome: components

"Dandy Walker Syndrome":
Dilated 4th ventricle
Water on the brain
Small vermis
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Cerebral palsy: general features

PALSY:
Paresis
Ataxia
Lagging motor development
Spasticity
Young
Show Details / Rate It

Multiple sclerosis (MS): pathology

MS attacks the Myelin Sheath, resulting in plaques.
Show Details / Rate It
---Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel

Alzheimer's disease: features

RONALD (Ronald Reagan, a famous victim):
Reduction of Ach
Old age
Neurofibrillary tangles
Atrophy of cerebral cortex (diffuse)
Language impairment
Dementia (MC in elderly)/ Down's syndrome
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Harsh Sharma BJMC, Pune, India

Pick's disease: features

PICK:
Progressive degeneration of neurons
Intracytoplasmic Pick bodies
Cortical atrophy
Knife edge gyri
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan

Alzheimer's disease (AD): associations, findings

AD:
· Associations:
Aluminum toxicity
Acetylcholine deficiencies
Amyloid B
Apolipoprotein gene E
Altered nucleus basalis of Meynert
Down's
· Findings:
Actin inclusions (Hirano bodies)
Atrophy of brain
Amyloid plaques
Aphasia, Apraxia, Agitation
DNA-coiled tangles
Dementia, Disoriented, Depressed
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Gujranwala, Pakistan

Wernickes encephalopathy: components

WACO:
· Wernickes is:
Ataxia
Confusion (or clouded consciousness)
Ocular problems
· Note: Waco is the town in Texas, USA made famous for a standoff with a David Koresh and the Branch Davidians.
Show Details / Rate It

Other

Necrosis: the 4 types

"Life Can Get Complicated":
Liquifactive
Coagulation
Gangrene
Caseous
· 'Life' used since necrosis is 'death'.
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Turner syndrome: components

CLOWNS:
Cardiac abnormalities (specifically Coartication)
Lymphoedema
Ovaries underdeveloped (causing sterility, amenorrhea)
Webbed neck
Nipples widely spaced
Short
Show Picture
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Fragile-X syndrome: features

DSM-4:
Discontinued chromosome staining
Shows anticipation
Male (male more affected)
Mental retardation (2nd most common genetic cause)
Macrognathia
Macroorchidism
Show Details / Rate It
---Hugo M. Rodriguez, MD University of Virginia Roanoke-Salem Program

Whipple's disease: full features

WHIPPLES:
Weight loss
Hyperpigmentation of skin
Infection with tropheryma whippelii
PAS positive granules in macrophage
Polyarthritis
Lymphadenopathy
Enteric involvement
Steatorrhea
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan

CREST sydrome: components

CREST:
Calcinosis
Raynaud's phenomena
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangectasia
Show Details / Rate It
---Andrew J. Vasil University of Minn Medical School

Edwards' syndrome: characteristics

EDWARDS:
Eighteen (trisomy)
Digit overlapping flexion
Wide head
Absent intellect (mentally retarded)
Rocker-bottom feet
Diseased heart
Small lower jaw
Show Details / Rate It
---Monika Kiripolsky Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Fragile X syndrome: features

FEMALES
FMR1 gene
Exhibits anticpation
Macro-orchidism
Autism
Long face with large jaw
Everted eyes
Second most common casue of genetic mental retardation
Show Details / Rate It
---Sung Hoon Kim El Paso, TX

Kawasaki Disease Criteria

"Be careful when riding a Kawasaki motorcycle, you might get CREAMed.
Conjunctivitis (non-exudative)
Rash (polymorphous non-vesicular)
Edema (or erythema of hands or feet)
Adenopathy (cervical, often unilateral)
Mucosal involvement (erythema or fissures or crusting)
To have Kawasaki disease you must have fever for greater than 5 days plus 4 of the above.
Show Details / Rate It
---Eric J Ex

Neurofibromatoses: chromosome mutation locations in von Reckinghausen (type I) vs. type II

"von Recklinghausen" has 17 letters and is due to a mutation on chromosome 17.
"Neurofibromatosis type 2" has 22 and is due to a mutation on chromosome 22.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor UAG

Pulmonary

Pulmonary embolism: risk factors

TOM SCHREPFER:
Trauma
Obesity
Malignancy
Surgery
Cardiac disease
Hospitalization
Rest [bed-ridden]
Elderly
Past history
Fracture
Estrogen [pregnancy, post-partum]
Road trip
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor

Respiratory distress syndrome in infants: major risk factors

PCD (Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, a cause of Respiratory distress syndrome):
Prematurity
Cesarean section
Diabetic mother
Show Details / Rate It
---Shebrain Cairo University

Emphysema: types, most important feature of each

"Cigarettes Is Primary Problem":
· Types:
Centrilobular
Irregular
Pancinar
Paraseptal
· Most important feature for each type (in order as above):
Cigarrettes
Inflammation healed to scar
Protease inhibitor deficiency (a1-antitrypsin)
Pneumothorax
· "Cigarettes is primary problem" used since cigarettes is most common cause of emphysema.
· Keeping P's straight: Pan is antitrypsin.
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

COPD: 4 types and hallmark

ABCDE:
Asthma
Brochiectasis
Chronic bronchitis
Dyspnea [hallmark of group]
Emphysema
· Alternatively: replace Dyspnea with Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio.
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Lung cancer: presentation

ABCDE:
Snowball turned to Avalanche
Blood: hemoptysis
Cough
Distruption to airway in bronchus-->pneumonia
whEEzing
Show Details / Rate It
---Samuel Atom Baek-Kim

Interstitial lung disease: causes

SARCOIDI:
Sarcoidosis
Allergic reaction
Radiation
Connective tissue disease
Occupational exposure
Infection
Drugs
Idiopathic
Show Picture
Show Details / Rate It
---Will Herrington UCL Hospital

Bronchial obstruction: consequences

APPLE BABE:
Atelectasis
Pleural adhesions
Pleuritis
Lipid pneumonia
Effusion->organisation->fibrosis
Bronchiectasis
Abscess
Broncho and lobar pneumonia
Emphysema
Show Details / Rate It
---BB University of Queensland, Australia

Nasopharyngeal malignant cancers

NASOPharyngeal:
Nasophayngeal
Adenocarcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Olfactory neuroblastoma
Plasmacytoma
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

TB: features

TB is characterised by 4 C's:
Caseation
Calcification
Cavitation
Cicatrization
Show Details / Rate It
---Sameh Shehata Asst. Prof of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt

Pancoast tumor: relationship with Horner's syndrome

"Horner has a MAP of the Coast":
A panCoast tumor is a cancer of the lung apex that compresses the cervical sympathetic plexus, causing Horner's syndrome, which is MAP:
Miosis
Anhidrosis
Ptosis

Pulmonary fibrosis: differential of both upper and lower lobes

BREAST SCAR:
· Upper lobe:
Beryliosis
Radiation
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis
Ankylosing spondylitis
Sarcoidosis
TB
· Lower lobe:
Systemic sclerosis
Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis
Asbestosis
Radiation
Show Details / Rate It
---Lyndon Mason 4th Year Medical Student

Pulmonary embolism: risk factors

7 H's:
Hereditary (eg factor V Leyden, protein C or S deficiency)
History (previous DVT or PE)
Hypomobility (fracture, CVA, severe illness, obesity, long trip)
Hypovolaemia (nephrotic syndrome, dehydration)
Hypercoagulability (smoking, malignancy)
Hormones (oestrogens [esp. in OCP], puerperium)
Hyperhomocysteinaemia
Show Details / Rate It
---Fahed Al-Daour Med Student

Pneumothorax: presentation

P-THORAX:
Pleuretic pain
Trachea deviation
Hyperresonance
Onset sudden
Reduced breath sounds (& dypsnea)
Absent fremitus
X-ray shows collapse
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

COPD: blue bloater vs. pink puffer diseases

emPhysema has letter P (and not B) so Pink Puffer.
chronic Bronchitis has letter B (and not P) so Blue Bloater.
Show Details / Rate It
---Harsh Sharma BJMC, Pune, India

Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): causes

ARDS:
Aspiration/ Acute pancreatitis/ Air embolism/ Amniotic embolism
Radiation
DIC/ Drugs/ Drowning/ Dialysis/ Diffuse lung infection
Shock/ Sepsis/ Smoke inhalation
Show Details / Rate It

reproductive

Breast cancer: risk assessment

"Risk can be assessed by History ALONE":
History (family, previous episode)
Abortion/ Age (old)
Late menopause
Obesity
Nulliparity
Early menarche
Show Details / Rate It
---Lau Yue Young Geoffrey Hong Kong University

Endometrial carcinoma: risk factors

ENDOMET:
Elderly
Nulliparity
Diabetes
Obesity
Menstrual irregularity
Estrogen therapy
hyperTension
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Polycystic ovary: morphology, presentation

· Morphology is poly-C:
Cysts
Capsule thickened
Cortical stromal fibrosis
· Clinical presentation is OVARY:
Obese
Virilism or hirsutism
Amenorrhoea
Reproductive problem [infertile]
Young woman
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Herpes I and II: lab findings.

She's an odd chick: whenever she's in a restaurant, she always orders Her Peas and Cow dry.
Herpes I and II have Cowdry Type A inclusion bodies
Show Details / Rate It
---Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel

Gynecomastia: causes

DaLAS:
Digitalis
Leydig cell tumors
Alcohol
Sertoli cell tumors
Show Details / Rate It
---Chris Jordan UAG

Scrotum masses

SHOVE IT:
Spermatocele
Hydrocele/ Haematocele
Orchitis
Varicocele
Epidymal cyst
Indirect inguinal hernia
Torsion/ Tumor
Show Details / Rate It
---Sushant Varma Medical student, University of Sheffield, UK

Ovarian cancers: important types, by WHO classification

· Surface:
"My Sister Began Experiencing Cancer":
Mucinous
Serous
Brenner
Endometrioid
Clear
· Germ cell:
"Doctor Examined The Ovaries":
Dysgerminoma
Endometrial sinus
Teratoma
Ovarian choriocarcinoma
· Sex cord:
"She Felt Grim":
Sertoli-Leydig
Fibroma
Granulosa-theca
· Metastatic
"Killed":
Krukenberg
Show Details / Rate It
---Edward Scarth Medical School, Univeristy of Nottingham

Endometrial carcinoma: risk factors

HONDA:
Hypertension
Obesity
Nulliparity
Diabetes
Age (increased)
Show Details / Rate It
---Sarah

Polycystic ovarian disease: clinical features

OHIO:
Oligomenorrhea
Hirsutism
Infertility
Obesity

Skeletal

Paget's disease of bone: signs and symptoms

Four L's:
Larger hat size
Loss of hearing: due to compression of nerve
Leontiasis ossea (lion-like face)
Light-headed (Paget's steal)
Show Details / Rate It
---Marc Miller Sackler School of Medicine

Carcinomas having tendency to metastasize to bone

"Particular Tumours Love Killing Bone":
Prostate
Thyroid
Lung
Kidney
Breast
Show Details / Rate It
---Ben Campbell University of Otago Medical School, Dunedin, New Zealand

Rheumatoid arthritis: features

RHEUMATOID:
Ragocytes/ Rheumatoid factor (anti-IgG)
HLA-DR4/ HLA-Dw4
ESR increase/ Extra-articular features (restrictive lung disease, subcutaneous nodules)
Ulnar deviation
Morning stiffness/ MCP joint
Ankylosis/ Atlantoaxial joint subluxation/ Autoimmune/ ANA
T-cells (CD4)/ TNF
Osteopenia
Inflammatory synovial tissue/ Idiopathic/ IL-1
Deformities (swan-neck, boutonniere)
Show Details / Rate It
---Rinku S. Uberoi UNIBE

Marble bone disease: signs and symptoms

MARBLES:
Multiple fractures
Anemia
Restricted cranial nerves
Blind & deaf
Liver enlarged
Erlenmeyer flask deformity
Splenomegaly
· Eponymous name: Marbles = Albers-Schonberg (anagram).
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Histiocytosis X: hallmark finding

"Birbeck's rackets is X":
Tennis rackets under electron microscope is Histiocystosis X.
Consider 2 tennis rackets in an X formation.
· See diagram.
Show Picture
Show Details / Rate It
---Robert O'Connor University College Dublin

Seronegative spondyloarthopathy: diseases

RAPE:
Reiter's syndrome
Ankylosing spondylitis
Psoriatic arthitis
Enteropathic arthitis (IBD)
Show Details / Rate It
---Wen Sun Lum University of Calgary, Canada

Osteomalacia: features

"Vit-D deficiency in ADULT":
Acetabuli protrusio
Decresed bone density
Under mineralization of osteoid
Looser's zone (pseudofracture)
Triradiate pelvis (females)
Show Details / Rate It
---Dr. Harsh Sharma BJMC, Pune, India

Osteosarcoma: features

PEARL HARBOR:
Paget's disease (10-20%)*
Early age (10-20 yrs)
Around knee
Raised periosteum by expanding tumor: "sunburst pattern"
Lace-like architecture
Hyaline arteoriosclerosis
Alkaline phosphatase increased
Retinoblastoma*
Boys, predominantly
Osteomyelitis DDx
Radiation*
· Sunburst pattern was Japanese Navy emblem during WWII.
*: Predisposing factors.
Show Details / Rate It
---Sung H. Kim El Paso, TX

Osteomyelitis: complications

FIBRES:
Fractures
Intraosseous (broidie) abscesses
Bacteremi/ Brodie abscess
Reactive amyloidosis
Endocarditis
Sinus tracts/ Squamous cell CA

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