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Saturday, November 13, 2010

pharmacology mnemonics for easy memorizing

PHARMACOLOGY

Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis 409]

"Very Angry Hepatocytes":

Valproic acid

Acetaminophen

Halothane

Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta 2144]

ABCD:

Alpha = Constrict.

Beta = Dilate.

Antiarrhythmics: class III members 2043]

BIAS:

Bretylium

Ibutilide

Amiodarone

Sotalol

Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity 1534]

Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart that rolls on pinwheels.

Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively, making them acceptable for use in some

diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers.

David Shprecher Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine

Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions 518]

ABCDE:

Asthma

Block (heart block)

COPD

Diabetes mellitus

Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)

Anonymous Contributor

Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers 1725]

"Tim Pinches His Nasal Problem" (because he has a runny nose...):

Timolol

Pindolol

Hismolol

Naldolol

Propranolol

Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects 515]

CAPTOPRIL:

Cough

Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis

Proteinuria/ Potassium excess

Taste changes

Orthostatic hypotension

Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop (first dose hypertension)

Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash

Indomethacin inhibition

Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity

Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action, monitoring 1657]

EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.

Monitor Xa concentration, rather than APTT.

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects, contraindications, interactions 2025]

HMG-CoA:

_ Side effects:

Hepatotoxicity

Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis]

_ Contraindications:

Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children

_ Interactions:

Coumarin/ Cyclosporine

Hypertension: treatment 2627]

ABCD:

ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists also)

Beta blockers

Calcium antagonists

Diuretics

Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment 1191]

"Come In and Close the door":

INdomethacin is used to Close PDA.

Milixa Fortuna UAG Medical Student

Propranolol and related '-olol' drugs: usage 246]

"olol" is just two backwards lower case b's.

Backward b's stand for "beta blocker".

_ Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, oxprenolol, propranolol.

Thrombolytic agents 1902]

USA:

Urokinase

Streptokinase

Alteplase (tPA)

Warfarin: action, monitoring 432]

WePT:

Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT.

Warfarin: metabolism 901]

SLOW:

_ Has a slow onset of action.

_ A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though.

Small lipid-soluble molecule

Liver: site of action

Oral route of administration.

Warfarin

Gynaecomastia-causing drugs 1798]

DISCOS:

Digoxin

Isoniazid

Spironolactone

Cimetidine

Oestrogens

Stilboestrol

K+ increasing agents 2088]

K-BANK:

K-sparing diuretic

Beta blocker

ACEI

NSAID

K supplement

Propythiouracil (PTU): mechanism 1617]

It inhibits PTU:

Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination

Tyrosine iodination

Union (coupling)

Steroid side effects 1526]

CUSHINGOID:

Cataracts

Ulcers

Skin: striae, thinning, bruising

Hypertension/ Hirsutism/ Hyperglycemia

Infections

Necrosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head

Glycosuria

Osteoporosis, obesity

Immunosuppression

Diabetes

Steroids: side effects 483]

BECLOMETHASONE:

Buffalo hump

Easy bruising

Cataracts

Larger appetite

Obesity

Moonface

Euphoria

Thin arms & legs

Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia

Avascular necrosis of femoral head

Skin thinning

Osteoporosis

Negative nitrogen balance

Emotional liability

Lupus: drugs inducing it 530]

HIP:

Hydralazine

INH

Procanimide

Diuretics: thiazides: indications 2091]

"CHIC to use thiazides":

CHF

Hypertension

Insipidous

Calcium calculi

Nitrofurantoin: major side effects 482]

NitroFurAntoin:

Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)

Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)

Anemia (hemolytic anemia)

Osmotic diuretics: members 772]

GUM:

Glycerol

Urea

Mannitol

SIADH-inducing drugs 2086]

ABCD:

Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs

Barbiturates

Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine

Diuretic (thiazide)

Sulfonamide: major side effects 774]

_ Sulfonamide side effects:

Steven-Johnson syndrome

Skin rash

Solubility low (causes crystalluria)

Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of other serum albumin-binders like warfarin)

Vir-named drugs: use 771]

"-vir at start, middle or end means for virus":

_ Drugs: Abacavir, Acyclovir, Amprenavir, Cidofovir, Denavir, Efavirenz, Indavir, Invirase, Famvir, Ganciclovir, Norvir, Oseltamivir,

Penciclovir, Ritonavir, Saquinavir, Valacyclovir, Viracept, Viramune, Zanamivir, Zovirax.

4-Aminopyradine (4-AP) use 768]

"4-AP is For AP":

For AP (action potential) propagation in Multiple Sclerosis.

Anticholinergic side effects 1958]

"Know the ABCD'S of anticholinergic side effects":

Anorexia

Blurry vision

Constipation/ Confusion

Dry Mouth

Sedation/ Stasis of urine

Antimuscarinics: members, action 1187]

"Inhibits Parasympathetic And Sweat":

Ipratropium

Pirenzepine

Atropine

Scopolamine

_ Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in sympathetic.

Aspirin: side effects 1349]

ASPIRIN:

Asthma

Salicyalism

Peptic ulcer disease/ Phosphorylation-oxidation uncoupling/ PPH/ Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA

Intestinal blood loss

Reye's syndrome

Idiosyncracy

Noise (tinnitus)

Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in liver failure) 1566]

LOT:

Lorazepam

Oxazepam

Temazepam

Benzodiazepenes: antidote 776]

"Ben is off with the flu":

Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.

Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolism 875]

"I'm Overly Calm":

Isoniazid

Oral contraceptive pills

Cimetidine

_ These drugs increase calming effect of BZDs by retarding metabolism.

Benzodiazepines: actions 464]

"Ben SCAMs Pam into seduction not by brain but by muscle":

Sedation

anti-Convulsant

anti-Anxiety

Muscle relaxant

Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity.

Beta 1 selective blockers 2148]

"BEAM ONE up, Scotty":

Beta 1 blockers:

Esmolol

Atenolol

Metropolol

Botulism toxin: action, related bungarotoxin 229]

Action: "Botulism Bottles up the Ach so it can't be the released":

Related bungarotoxin: "Botulism is related to Beta Bungarotoxin (beta-, not alpha-bungarotoxin--alpha has different mechanism).

Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects 388]

If you know these, you will be "LESS DUMB":

Lacrimation

Excitation of nicotinic synapses

Salivation

Sweating

Diarrhea

Urination

Micturition

Bronchoconstriction

Delerium-causing drugs 617]

ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:

Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)

Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)

Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)

Theophylline

Ethanol

Corticosteroids

H2 blockers

Antiparkinsonian drugs

Narcotics (esp. mepridine)

Geriatric psychiatric drugs

ENT drugs

Insomnia drugs

NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)

Muscle relaxants

Seizure medicines

Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines 769]

DINED:

Dopamine

Isoproterenol

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Dobutamine

Inhalation anesthetics 534]

SHINE:

Sevoflurane

Halothane

Isoflurane

Nitrous oxide

Enflurane

_ If want the defunct Methoxyflurane too, make it MoonSHINE.

Ipratropium: action 231]

Atropine is buried in the middle: iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.

Lead poisoning: presentation 517]

ABCDEFG:

Anemia

Basophilic stripping

Colicky pain

Diarrhea

Encephalopathy

Foot drop

Gum (lead line)

Lithium: side effects 531]

LITH:

Leukocytosis

Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]

Tremor/ Teratogenesis

Hypothyroidism

MAOIs: indications 2059]

MAOI'S:

Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression]

Anxiety

Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia]

Imagined illnesses [hypochondria]

Social phobias

_ Listed in decreasing order of importance.

_ Note MAOI is inside MelAnchOlIc.

Methyldopa: side effects 487]

METHYLDOPA:

Mental retardation

Electrolyte imbalance

Tolerance

Headache/ Hepatotoxicity

psYcological upset

Lactation in female

Dry mouth

Oedema

Parkinsonism

Anaemia (haemolytic)

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: members 1186]

"PIT of despair":

Phenelzine

Isocarboxazid

Tranylcypromine

_ A pit of despair, since MAOs treat depression.

Morphine: effects 1174]

MORPHINES:

Miosis

Orthostatic hypotension

Respiratory depression

Pain supression

Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations

Increased ICT

Nausea

Euphoria

Sedation

Morphine: effects at mu receptor 1837]

PEAR:

Physical dependence

Euphoria

Analgesia

Respiratory depression

Narcotic antagonists 533]

The Narcotic Antagonists are NAloxone and NAltrexone.

_ Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.

Parkinsonism: drugs 1812]

SALAD:

Selegiline

Anticholinenergics (trihexyphenidyl, benzhexol, ophenadrine)

L-Dopa + peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa, benserazide)

Amantadine

Dopamine postsynaptic receptor agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride, pergolide)

Phenytoin: adverse effects 1796]

PHENYTOIN:

P-450 interactions

Hirsutism

Enlarged gums

Nystagmus

Yellow-browning of skin

Teratogenicity

Osteomalacia

Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)

Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, headache

Physostigmine vs. neostigmine 1434]

LMNOP:

Lipid soluble

Miotic

Natural

Orally absorbed well

Physostigmine

_ Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:

Water soluble

Used in myesthenia gravis

Synthetic

Poor oral absorption

Pupils in overdose: morphine vs. amphetamine 156]

"MorPHINE: Fine. AmPHETamine: Fat":

Morphine overdose: pupils constricted (fine).

Amphetamine overdose: pupils dilated (fat).

Serotonin syndrome: components 2273]

Causes HARM:

Hyperthermia

Autonomic instability (delirium)

Rigidity

Myoclonus

Sodium valproate: side effects 493]

VALPROATE:

Vomiting

Alopecia

Liver toxicity

Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia

Retention of fats (weight gain)

Oedema (peripheral oedema)

Appetite increase

Tremor

Enzyme inducer (liver)

SSRIs: side effects 532]

SSRI:

Serotonin syndrome

Stimulate CNS

Reproductive disfunctions in male

Insomnia

Succinylcholine: action, use 248]

Succinylcholine gets Stuck to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore.

You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation.

Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing 2236]

"I have to hide, the CIA is after me":

Clomipramine

Imipramine

Amitrptyline

_ If want the next 3 worth knowing, the DNDis also after me:

Desipramine

Norrtriptyline

Doxepin

Tricyclic antidipressents (TCA): side effects 2878]

TCA'S:

Thrombocytopenia

Cardiac (arrhymia, MI, stroke)

Anticholinergic (tachycardia, urinary retention, etc)

Seizures

Vigabatrin: mechanism 1578]

Vi-GABA-Tr-In:

Via GABA Transferase Inhibition

Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy 1250]

MCAT:

Metronidazole

Chloramphenicol

Aminoglycoside

Tetracycline

Busulfan: features 2198]

ABCDEF:

Alkylating agent

Bone marrow suppression s/e

CML indication

Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e

Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e

Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e

Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA 2195]

ABCDEF:

Alkylating agents

Bleomycin

Cisplastin

Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin

Etoposide

Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen, leuprolide)

Etoposide: action, indications, side effect 1193]

"eTOPoside":

_ Action:

Inhibits TOPoisomerase II

_ Indications:

Testicular carcinoma

Oat cell carcinoma of lung

Prostate carcinoma

_ Side effect:

Affects TOP of your head, causing alopecia

Metabolism enzyme inducers 299]

"Randy's Black Car Goes Putt Putt and Smokes":

Rifampin

Barbiturates

Carbamazepine

Grisoefulvin

Phenytoin

Phenobarb

Smoking cigarettes

Morphine: side-effects 2550]

MORPHINE:

Myosis

Out of it (sedation)

Respiratory depression

Pneumonia (aspiration)

Hypotension

Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)

Nausea

Emesis

Therapeutic index: formula 2032]

TILE:

TI = LD50 / ED50

Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing 2269]

APACHE:

Amiodarone

Procainamide

Arsenium

Cisapride

Haloperidol

Eritromycin

Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones) 462]

"PEAZ (sounds like pees) out a constant amount":

Phenytoin

Ethanol

Aspirin

Zero order

_ Someone that pees out a constant amount describes zero order kinetics (always the same amount out)

Asthma drugs: leukotriene inhibitor action 2241]

zAfirlukast: Antagonist of lipoxygenase

zIlueton: Inhibitor of LT receptor

Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location 34]

"You have 1 heart and 2 lungs":

Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart.

Beta-2 primarily on lungs.

Respiratory depression inducing drugs 1980]

"STOP breathing":

Sedatives and hypnotics

Trimethoprim

Opiates

Polymyxins

Ribavirin: indications 2101]

RIBAvirin:

RSV

Influenza B

Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.)

TB: antibiotics used 1581]

STRIPE:

STreptomycin

Rifampicin

Isoniazid

Pyrizinamide

Ethambutol

Zafirlukast, Montelukast, Cinalukast: mechanism, usage 648]

"Zafir-luk-ast, Monte-luk-ast, Cina-luk-ast":

_ Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma.

_ Dazzle your oral examiner: Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4.

Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibiotics 1433]

TAP CAP:

Thalidomide

Androgens

Progestins

Corticosteroids

Aspirin & indomethacin

Phenytoin

Tetracycline: teratogenicity 876]

TEtracycline is a

TEratogen that causes staining of

TEeth in the newborn.

Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members 2035]

CHAMP:

Cyclophosphamide

Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine

Auranofin and other gold compounds

Methotrexate

Penicillamine

Auranofin, aurothioglucose: category and indication 2036]

Aurum is latin for "gold" (gold's chemical symbol is Au).

Generic Aur- drugs (Auranofin, Aurothioglucose) are gold compounds.

_ If didn't learn yet that gold's indication is rheumatoid arthritis, AUR- Acts Upon Rheumatoid.

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